Conflict-of-Interest Statement : : Informed Consent Statement : : Human and Animal Rights Statement
Conflict-of-Interest Statement: In the peer review process and the credibility of published articles depend in part on how well a conflict of interest is handled during writing, peer review, and editorial decision making. A conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author`s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). These relationships vary from those with negligible potential to those with great potential to influence judgment, and not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. The potential for a conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion.
Informed Consent Statement: Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients` names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify Individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. The requirement for informed consent should be included in the journal`s instructions for authors. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article.
Human and Animal Rights Statement: Published research must comply with the guidelines for human studies and animal welfare regulations. Authors should state that subjects have given their informed consent and that the study protocol has been approved by the institute’s committee on human research. Further, they should also state that animal experiments conform to institutional standards.
Dr. Arend L Mapanawang, Sp.PD, FINASIM, PhD